In the rapid development of Technology, mankind is pushing their limits in order to achieve a better future. Quantum computers have the potential to change completely how we use technology in the near future. Because the Computational power of a Quantum Computer is off the charts.
What is a Quantum Computer?
Quantum Computers are the machines that promise an exponential growth in the Processing Power that is beyond the horizon. Quantum computers are based on Quantum Mechanics or Quantum-Mechanical phenomena i.e Superposition & Entanglement. They are capable of tackling the problems that our computer can’t solve today.
Is there any fully functional Quantum Computer available today?
Well, sadly the answer is no. But this field has gained some serious growth. Tech giants like IBM, Google, and startups like Regetti computing are all fully functional in this field to present the worlds first universal Quantum Computer.
How does it work?
Well, to understand Quantum Computing you need to have the understanding of Quantum Mechanics. Because Quantum Mechanics describes the world around us at the smallest scale as atoms or subatomic particles. Quantum Computers uses the two very important fundamental property of Quantum Mechanics one of them is Superposition of states and the other is Entanglement.
In the present computing model, we know that every information or data is the combination of Bits i.e 0s and 1s. But with Superposition the Quantum Computers can do things differently. So instead of using bits like either 0 or 1, it uses Cubits or Quantum Bits. When the bit is represented as the combination of 0s and 1s they form Cubits.
Entanglement is the special form of superposition which is the combination of two Cubits in a superpositioned state. And the information is only understandable with the collective elements of both Cubits. If we change the state of one cubit then the other ones will feel the change because of a ghostly connection between them. Which in turns helps to transfer lots of information more efficiently within a quantum network.
The main challenge is controlling the cubits and constructing the right quantum architecture. The Quantum Computer that is in the development phase will look like the computer’s that are in the late 50s.
To build the Quantum Computer we need the Quantum chips and tech giants are investing in making the superconducting cubits. The Superconducting cubits are the metal on a silicon chip that is arranged in such a way that when cooldown can behave as a superconducting material. And because of this nature, the electron can flow without electrical resistance.
In order to control the cubits, we need a lot of hardware that sends the pulses and signals to cubits. A resonator is used which is sensitive to the state of cubits which helps to communicate within the quantum network.
Challenges in building a Quantum Computer
- To reduce the size of the product and equipment required. Because of Quantum Computers being massive and like the first generation classical computers.
- Communication between cubits.
- Manufacturing Quantum chips efficiently.
- The time frame that the cubits can hold the information (Quantumness) is very less. So the biggest challenge is to increase the Coherence time.
Because the operating system of nature is not with 0s and 1s, But it is the quantum mechanics. Which helps to study at the subatomic level that what a molecule can do.
- The Medical industry spends billions to study the compounds and molecules in the drugs. As Quantum computing can do this pretty well and efficiently.
- The communicational network can be enhanced with the encryption and security that Quantum Computing can provide.
- Industry and transportation systems.
- Security etc.
The Quantum Computer will change the way we will work in future.